Kitchener Medical Clinics - The medical term "Respiratory Disease" includes different pathological conditions affecting the tissues and organs that make gas exchange possible. Respiratory disease consists of conditions of the bronchi, upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura, pleural cavity as well as the muscles and nerves responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting such as the common cold for example, to life-threatening conditions like for instance bacterial pneumonia, ling cancer and pulmonary embolism.
Pulmonology is the study of respiratory disease and a doctor of medicine specializing in this area specifically is referred to as a pulmonologist. Other names used for this medical practitioner consist of: a thoracic medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a respirologist and a chest medicine expert.
Respiratory diseases can be classified in a variety of different ways; either by the tissue or organ involved or by the type and pattern of connected symptoms and signs, or by the etiology or cause of the disease.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
Inflammatory Lung Disease is characterized by a high neutrophil count. Some examples consist of: emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and cystic fibrosis.
Allergic reactions are a common reason for acute respiratory disease. This is caused by the exposure to various agents and foods. Common allergens which are found in foods may consist of radish, lemon, sea foods like some prawns and fatty fish, bananas, peanuts, pomegranates, ice creams and dairy, arrowroot, lemon, lady's finger and berries. Weather conditions may also affect several people because dusty and sandy weather during summer may make the air quality poor for individuals who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This grouping of diseases pertain to problems of the airways comprising the alveoli, bronchi and bronchioles. They become reduced in volume or else that have impeded the free flow of gas, making it more difficult to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
This is a category of respiratory disease that is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These lung diseases result in incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness. IRDS or also called Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an instance.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiratory infections can affect all parts of the respiratory system. These infections are usually divided into either an upper respiratory tract infection or a lower respiratory tract infection.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The common cold is the most common type of upper respiratory infection. Infections of specific organs located in the upper respiratory tract like for example pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, sinusitis and laryngitis are likewise in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Pneumonia is the most common lower respiratory tract infection. It is a lung infection normally as a result of bacteria, normally Streptococcus in the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large reason for pneumonia throughout the world. Various fungi and viruses could lead to pneumonia as well, like for instance acute respiratory syndrome and pneumocystic pneumonia.
Tumors in the respiratory system are either malignant or benign.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Pleural cavity diseases include mesothelioma and emphysema. A pleural effusion is a build up of fluid in the pleural cavity. This can be due to situations such as cirrhosis and congestive heart failure, because the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here can even occur from pleura inflammation, TB, pulmonary embolus, mesothelioma and different conditions.
The pneumothorax is a hole in the pleura which helps to cover the lungs, where air is permitted inside the lungs to escape into the pleural cavity. A tension pneumothorax is a severe type of this where the air cannot escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure eventually gets bigger compressing the heart and blood vessels, leading to a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases are certain conditions that affect the pulmonary circulation. Instances of these diseases include: Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary edema and Pulmonary embolism.
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